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  QuarkXPress™ Technical Manual Project
Part 4C - Build The Document - Continued

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Quark™ provides a means to view non-printing (invisible) characters. Two of these we are interested in are the "New Paragraph" character and the "New Line" character.
A new paragraph is produced by pressing "Enter" and is represented by a cr.gif symbol. It is also known as a "carriage return", "hard return" or "end of paragraph" symbol.
A new line is produced by pressing "Shift-Enter" and is represented by a lf.gif symbol. It is also known as a "line feed " or "soft return".

Pay attention to the number of carriage returns and line feeds. They determine the appearance of paragraph spacing to a large extent.

You can view these symbols by clicking View > Show Invisibles. Pressing Ctrl-I (Windows®) or Cmd-I (Mac®) will toggle this feature on and off. This is an important tool for checking and correcting the appearance of the text. Always check this and your leading first before applying an unusual solution like shifting the baseline.

A paragraph in a page layout program is not the same as a grammatical paragraph. In page layout programs paragraphs are separated by carriage returns. When paragraph styles (Quark refers to them as "style sheets") are applied, the style formatting will apply to all text subsequent to a carriage return.

lightbulbt.gif   Tip: A good habit to get into is to use carriage returns to separate areas in the body copy where there will be changes in style formatting. Quark is extremely flexible and allows local formatting without requiring the use of carriage returns wherever there are style changes. Too much use of local formatting makes it hard to use paragraph styles.

13. In this tutorial you'll have to type the heads and subheads to break up the body copy. Start by typing the text for the chapter head and topic subhead.


14. Press Ctrl-I (Windows) or Cmd-I (Mac) to toggle the invisible characters on. Note that there is a carriage return after the chapter head and a carriage return after the subhead. Note also that there are two line feeds before the subhead (in this tutorial carriage returns can be used in place of line feeds, but not the other way around). Repeat this pattern for the rest of the subheads in the manual - two line feeds before and a carriage return after.

The reason we can use carriage returns in place of line feeds in this tutorial is because we are going to set it up so all the leading is the same except for the chapter head. This will make it very easy to control paragraph spacing.


15. Highlight the chapter head text.


16. In the Measurements palette enter 30 for the point size, 30 for the leading, -5 for tracking and click the button for bold type style.

17. This is a view after step 16.


lightbulbt.gif   Tip: A good rule of thumb is to set the leading to the same number of points as the point size of the type. In this case we have a 30 point typeface with 30 points of leading.

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